The Cigarette Smoking Man Returns

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smoking manThe Cigarette Smoking Man Returns
 
William B. Davis` iconic character CGB Spender, a.k.a. The Cigarette Smoking Man, is teased in a new poster for Fox`s ‘X-Files` return. Since the 1960s, a smoker`s risk of developing lung cancer or COPD has actually increased compared with nonsmokers, even though the number of cigarettes consumed per smoker has decreased ( 1 ). There have also been changes in the type of lung cancer smokers develop - a decline in squamous cell carcinomas but a dramatic increase in adenocarcinomas Both of these effects may be due to changes in the formulation of cigarettes ( 1 ).The series follows FBI special agents Scully ( Gillian Anderson ) and Mulder ( David Duchovny ) as they investigate unexplained cases — dubbed X-Files” — for which the only answers seem to involve paranormal phenomena. A pregnant smoker is at higher risk of miscarriage, having an ectopic pregnancy , having her baby born too early and with an abnormally low birth weight, and having her baby born with a cleft lip and/or cleft palate ( 1 ). A woman who smokes during or after pregnancy increases her infant`s risk of death from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) ( 2 , 3 ). Men who smoke are at greater risk of erectile dysfunction ( 1 , 6 ).It is now a valuable resource for professional statisticians involved in industry, academic research and education.  Cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke cause about 480,000 premature deaths each year in the United States ( 1 ). Of these premature deaths, about 36 percent are from cancer, 39 percent are from heart disease and stroke, and 24 percent are from lung disease ( 1 ). Smoking is the leading cause of premature, preventable death in this country.This study of a very large sample of children gives insights into the real dangers of smoking during pregnancy.  In a cigarette (which contains 0.49 to 0.89 gram of tobacco), the nicotine content can vary between 13.79 and 22.68 milligrams per gram of dry tobacco ( 12 , 13 ). In a cigar (which can contain as many as 21.5 grams of tobacco), the nicotine content can vary between 6.3 and 15.6 milligrams per gram of tobacco or 5.9 to 335.2 milligrams per cigar ( 14 ).Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is the single most preventable cause of death in the United States.  So ultimately, acquiring a (note that I said a” and not the”) combination of mutations that generates a cancerous population of cells is simply bad luck - for everyone - but some things increase your risk of bad luck including the inheritance of some of these mutations and some environmental factors (radiation, smoking) that cause DNA damage (strand breaks, methylation, etc.) and thus increase the risk of mutations.
 
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Modern cigarette making machines of the sort made by the Hauni Corporation in Hamburg or GD (Generate Differences) in Bologna crank out cigarettes at rates up to 20 000 per min, which helps account for the dramatic drop in manufacturing costs over the last century or so. Cigarette factories today produce death at a faster rate—and cheaper—than any previous form of industrial manufacture.Nicotine at higher doses than are typically prescribed can contribute to low fetal birth weight and other adverse effects during pregnancy; however, the benefit of increased success in smoking cessation for women of childbearing age who have already tried and failed to quit without medication is generally considered to outweigh this comparatively small risk.Published English-language papers of all types were collected over a 12-month period from October 1997 to October 1998 by use of the portion of the MEDLINE® database from 1985 to the present and various combinations of the following terms: smoking, smoking cessation, epidemiology, prevalence, nicotine, cotinine, acetylcholine, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, lung cancer, oral cancer, drug abuse and dependence, alcohol dependence, depression, twin studies, and animal model studies.Evidence for genetic determinants affecting the smoking phenotype has steadily accumulated both from studies of substance abuse in animals and from analysis of the contributions of genetics and personality to substance abuse in humans ( 78 , 79 ). Two recent linkage studies in humans ( 80 , 81 ) have indicated regions of the genome in which loci affecting nicotine dependence and ever smoking may be found with further work.Smokers experience self-reported increases in arousal and decreases in stress after smoking cigarettes, with absolute levels of arousal and stress peaking in midday and in the morning, respectively ( 107 ). Smokers experience stimulation and sedation simultaneously from each cigarette; however, they also experience lower equilibrium levels of arousal and higher equilibrium levels of stress than nonsmokers.

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